Human Spaceflights

International Flight No. 107

Soyuz T-14



Salyut patch

Launch, orbit and landing data

Launch date:  17.09.1985
Launch time:  12:38:52.084 UTC
Launch site:  Baikonur
Launch pad:  1
Altitude:  196 - 223 km
Inclination:  51.6°
Docking Salyut 7:  18.09.1985, 14:15 UTC
Undocking Salyut 7:  21.11.1985, 07:16 UTC
Landing date:  21.11.1985
Landing time:  10:31:00 UTC
Landing site:  47°03' N, 69°51' E

walkout photo

Crew Soyuz T-14

hi res version (1,13 MB)

alternative crew photo

alternative crew photo

alternative crew photo

alternative crew photo

alternative crew photo


No.   Surname Given names Position Flight No. Duration Orbits
1  Vasyutin  Vladimir Vladimirovich  Commander 1 64d 21h 52m 08s  1027 
2  Grechko  Georgi Mikhailovich  Flight Engineer 3 8d 21h 13m 06s  140 
3  Volkov  Aleksandr Aleksandrovich  Research Cosmonaut 1 64d 21h 52m 08s  1027 

Crew seating arrangement

1  Vasyutin
2  Grechko
3  Volkov
Soyuz T spacecraft
1  Savinykh
2  Vasyutin
3  Volkov

Backup Crew

No.   Surname Given names Position
1  Viktorenko  Aleksandr Stepanovich  Commander
2  Strekalov  Gennadi Mikhailovich  Flight Engineer
3  Saley  Yevgeni Vladimirovich  Research Cosmonaut
Crew Soyuz T-14 backup

hi res version (0.98 MB)

alternative crew photo

alternative crew photo


Launch vehicle:  Soyuz-U2 (No. Shch15000-007)
Spacecraft:  Soyuz T-14 (7K-ST No. 20L)


Launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome and landing 181 km southeast of Dzheskasgan.

Following a one-day solo flight Soyuz T-14 docked with Salyut 7 on September 18, 1985. Main goal was a partly exchange of current resident crew (Vladimir Dzhanibekov). Soyuz T-14 transported Commander Vladimir Vasyutin, Flight Engineer Georgi Grechko and Research Cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov to the Salyut 7 orbital station.

After Georgi Grechko had inspected the repairs and condition of the station, he and Vladimir Dzhanibekov, from Soyuz T-13, returned to earth aboard Soyuz T-13 on September 26, 1985.

The crew received Kosmos 1686 on October 02, 1985. This was a modified TKS spacecraft with the military 'star wars' tracking experiments mounted in a stripped-down VA capsule. The crew was to conduct these experiments, and conduct spacewalks with application to future space stations. Kosmos 1686 contained 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) of freight, including large items like a girder to be assembled outside Salyut 7, and the Kristallizator materials processing apparatus. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). It burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 07, 1991 04:00 UTC. It re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.

Photography of the Earth surface was done. Observation of mechanical and electronical behavior of enlarged space station (Kosmos 1686) was part of the scientific program. The crew conducted military experiments with the Kosmos 1686 module.

A premature return to Earth because of seriously illness of Vladimir Vasyutin was needed. He was suffering from a very bad urinary tract infection and had a high fever as well. It took nearly six weeks of antibiotics once back on the ground before he was better. Other sources said that the mission was cut short due to an incapacitating psychological condition developed by Vladimir Vasyutin.

Experiments and tests for the planned space station Mir and EVA's were not accomplished.

The Soyuz spacecraft is composed of three elements attached end-to-end - the Orbital Module, the Descent Module and the Instrumentation/Propulsion Module. The crew occupied the central element, the Descent Module. The other two modules are jettisoned prior to re-entry. They burn up in the atmosphere, so only the Descent Module returned to Earth.
The deorbit burn lasted about 3 to 4 minutes. Having shed two-thirds of its mass, the Soyuz reached Entry Interface - a point 400,000 feet (121.9 kilometers) above the Earth, where friction due to the thickening atmosphere began to heat its outer surfaces. With only 23 minutes left before it lands on the grassy plains of central Asia, attention in the module turned to slowing its rate of descent.
Eight minutes later, the spacecraft was streaking through the sky at a rate of 755 feet (230 meters) per second. Before it touched down, its speed slowed to only 5 feet (1.5 meter) per second, and it lands at an even lower speed than that. Several onboard features ensure that the vehicle and crew land safely and in relative comfort.
Four parachutes, deployed 15 minutes before landing, dramatically slowed the vehicle's rate of descent. Two pilot parachutes were the first to be released, and a drogue chute attached to the second one followed immediately after. The drogue, measuring 24 square meters (258 square feet) in area, slowed the rate of descent from 755 feet (230 meters) per second to 262 feet (80 meters) per second.
The main parachute was the last to emerge. It is the largest chute, with a surface area of 10,764 square feet (1,000 square meters). Its harnesses shifted the vehicle's attitude to a 30-degree angle relative to the ground, dissipating heat, and then shifted it again to a straight vertical descent prior to landing.
The main chute slowed the Soyuz to a descent rate of only 24 feet (7.3 meters) per second, which is still too fast for a comfortable landing. One second before touchdown, two sets of three small engines on the bottom of the vehicle fired, slowing the vehicle to soften the landing.


Georgi Grechko landed on September 26, 1985 at 09:51:58 UTC with Soyuz T-13 spacecraft.

Photos / Graphics

Salyut 7 crew in training
EVA training Soyuz T-13 onboard Salyut 7
Salyut 7 with Soyuz T-14 Salyut 7 with Soyuz T-14
Soyuz T-14 recovery Soyuz T-14 recovery


Last update on July 24, 2023.